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E MANUAL ARTS 

FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
DRAWING • DESIGN- CONSTRUCTION 




C. S. HAMMOCK 
AC. HAMMOCK 



SHOP -WORK 

D. C, HEATH &" COMPANY 

BOSTON - NEW YORK- CHICAGO 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2011 with funding from 
The Library of Congress 



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AUTHOR'S NOTE 



This book is intended not as a complete treatise on wood and metal working, but as a 
guide for upper grammar grade and high school pupils in working out certain problems in 
metal and wood. The problems selected are typical of useful articles which boys enjoy mak- 
ing, and the methods of working are in harmony with those of the best workmen. Classes 
need not be limited to the making of the articles described, as all the usual processes needed 
in the making of any ordinary object are embodied in the various problems in the book. The 
authors realize that many of the problems may be rather too difficult for grammar grade pupils, 
but they have put them in with the understanding that this book will be used by a great 
many high school students. In cases where the problems seem too difficult for grammar 
grades, similar things of a simpler nature may be substituted. In fact it is taken for granted 
that the instructor will supply the simpler projects which he finds best adapted to his classes. 
Inasmuch as simpler problems are given in the other books of this series it seems unnecessary 
to repeat them here. They appear as follows: Fifth Year Book, pages 24, 25, 28, 30, 32, 34; 
Sixth Year Book, pages 30, 32. 34; Seventh Year Book, pages 16, 30, 34; Eighth Year Book, 
pages 29, 30, 32, 34, 35. 

C. S. H. and A. G. H. 

Boston, January, 1910. 



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SHOP WORK 



GENERAL PLAN OF THE BOOK 

The work given in this book is not arranged according to any special scheme of ^vo^k, 
and in many cases the exercises taken up are so independently planned that they may be used 
in almost any order. The first part of the book is devoted to wood-working and the latter 
part to thin metal-working. Practice in using tools for the mere sake of practice is not 
considered worth while, as, for instance, simply sawing for the sake of learning to saw. It 
is considered very much better to use the tools in making objects even while learning the 
various operations. The work, therefore, begins with projects instead of exercises. These 
projects bring the tool operations into use as nearly as seems possible in the order of their 
ease in execution and understanding. 

It is not considered necessary to enter into any lengthy discussion about the arrangement 
of tools upon the bench or about the arrangement and care of the work-shop, inasmuch as 
this book is intended to supplement, and not supplant, the work of the instructor. It is consid- 
ered essential, however, to give some attention to the structure and use of the various tools. 
The section of the book, then, upon "tools and operations" should be referred to often, and 
should be studied carefully whenever any new tool or new operation is to be taken up. 

In working out problems in wood the following processes are involved : 

1. Laying out stock. 3. Assembling. 

2. Dressing up stock. 4. Finishing. 

1. LAYING OUT STOCK 

The process of marking out upon the material at hand the different pieces before cutting 
them out is called laying out stock. Select the lumber to be used and mark out on this, by 
the aid of rule and try-square, as many of the required pieces as possible, allowing }( to 
yi inch on each dimension for dressing. After more facility is acquired in the use of tools a 
smaller margin may be allowed. Before beginning to construct an object a stock list should 
be made, showing just how many pieces are needed and the exact size of each. As you lay 
out the pieces check them from the stock list. After laying out all parts, proceed to saw 
them all out before beginning to dress up. Use cross-cut saw for all cuts across the grain, 
and the rip-saw for cutting with the grain. 

2. DRESSING UP STOCK 

The steps to be taken in dressing up a piece of stock are : 
X. Dress one side (face side). 

2. Dress one edge (joint edge), at right angles with face side. 

3. From joint edge measure width and dress opposite edge. 

4. Square one end with joint edge and dress end. 

2 



5- Measure length from this squared end. Square and dress opposite end. 
6. Mark thickness on all edges from face side and dress opposite side down to the mark. 
Follow this order of procedure with each piece, and dress up all pieces before beginning 
to assemble. 

3. ASSEMBLING 

With the drawing before you proceed to assemble, or put together, the parts. No general 
directions can be given for assembling, inasmuch as thej different articles will be assembled 
in different ways. Refer to the instruction given for assembling the stool on page 19. 

4. FINISHING 

If the tool work has been done with sufficient care no sandpaper will be necessary, except 
to remove the finger marks or stains. Sandpaper is not a cutting tool and must not be used 
to obliterate evidence of careless tool work. A surface left by the sharp edge of a cutting 
tool is preferable to a surface that has been sandpapered. After all spots or stains have been 
removed from the surface it should be very carefully dusted, leaving it clean and free from 
loose particles of sand or dust. Apply any suitable stain or finish. (See page g.) 



TOOLS AND OPERATIONS 

In order to use tools with proficiency it is necessary to know their structure and various 
uses. The structure of a tool depends, of course, upon the use to which it is put, and by 
gaining a thorough understanding of both one will be enabled to get the greatest good from a 
tool, and to avoid using one tool for 
a purpose for which some other is 
better adapted. 

For convenience in study, we 
may divide wood-working tools 
into three general classes ; the 
laying-out tools, cutting tools, and 
general, or miscellaneous, tools. 

The laying-out tools used for 
measuring and marking in general 
use are the rule, try-square, mark- 
ing gauge, framing square, bevel 
and knife. 

RULE. Any ordinary 12-inch 
rule, graduated to i6ths of an 
inch, will ansvsrer the purpose. It 
should be understood by the stu- 
dent that a rule is to be used for 
no other purpose than measuring, 
and in measuring the distance 
should be set off by using a very 
sharp pencil or the point of a 
knife, preferably the latter. It is 
well not to measure from the end 
of a rule, but to begin on one of 
the divisions away from the end, 
as the corner of a rule may be- 
come slightly jammed and there- 
fore inaccurate. Figure i shows Fig. 1. 




I 




Fig. 2 



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the method of using a knife in setting off measurements on a rule. The back of the blade 
should be turned toward the rule, the knife held vertically and tightly against the edge of the 
rule. In this way a very accurate measurement may be made. 

TRY-SQUARE. For drawing lines the try-square (or the framing square) should be used. 
The lines may be drawn with a pencil, or may be scored with a knife. In working across 
the grain scoring with a knife will be found 
more satisfactory. Acquire the habit of mark- 
ing or scoring once only, instead of making 
several scratches as is sometimes done. Make 
up your mind in the beginning that you are 
going to be accurate in your work and you 
are likely to do such work as can be depended 

upon. Fix a standard in your mind that nothing is good enough unless it is right, 
not then remeasure a piece of stock several times to be sure that it is right. 

In using a square, see that the beam is held firmly against the stock and not allowed to 
slip while the scoring is done. The try-square has many uses, aside from those described. 
In laying out and dressing up stock the try-square plays an important part. It is used to 
test edges, ends and sides of boards, as shown in Figure 2. If it is desired to cut off a 
board, it is necessary to mark entirely around it with the knife and try-square. After the 
piece is sawed off the try-square is again used to test the straightness and accuracy of the 
cut. If any block planing or other cutting is necessary to render the cut straight, the try- 
square is the instrument that is used to determine it. 

FRAMING SQUARE. The structure of the framing square is similar to that of the 
try-square, except that it is larger, and instead of having a thick beam like the try-square 
it is the same thickness as the blade, and is used only for large work. 

THE MARKING GAUGE. 
The use of the marking gauge 
is shown in Figure 3. In setting 
off the distance on the gauge use 
the rule, and not the graduated 
scale upon the gauge, as the rule 
is more likely to be accurate. 
Place the end of the rule against 
the block of the gauge and slide 
the bar through the block until the 
marking point of the gauge co- 
incides with the point upon the 
rule which indicates the distance 
desired. Turn the set screw in 
the block, being careful not to 
change its position, and the gauge 
is set ready for use. The thumb 
and forefinger should encircle the 
gauge block when it is used, and 
the tool should be tipped from 
you until the spur, or marking 
point, barely touches the wood. The line made by the gauge should be as fine as a 
knife or pencil line. Note that the gauge is always moved from you. 

THE BEVEL. The bevel is similar to the try-square, differing only in that it has a 
movable blade which can be set at any desired angle. It is used in laying off angles of vari- 
ous degrees, and in the same manner as the try-square. The blade is loosened by turning the 
set screw to the left, and after the blade is set at the proper angle the set screw is tightened, 
after which it is ready for use. 




Fig. 3 



CUTTING TOOLS 



The tools coming under this 
heading are saws of various kinds, 
planes, chisels, augur-bits, spoke- 
shaves, drawing knife, hatchet and 
knife. The cutting tools themselves 
may be divided into two classes, — 
those with toothed edges and those 
with smooth edges. 

SAWS. The tooth-edged tools 
are saws, of which there are many 
varieties, — the most common being 
the rip-saw for cutting with the 
grain, and the cross-saw for cutting 
against it. If the cutting edge of the 
rip-saw were enlarged sufficiently, 
it would be apparent to the eye 
that it is merely a succession of 
chisels set in such position that 
they cut at right angles to the wood 
fibres. Alternating teeth are bent 
inward and outward sufficiently to 
make the cut, or kerf, of the saw 
wide enough for the blade to pass 
through freely. Compare carefully 
the structure of the teeth of cross- 
cut and rip-saws. 

THE BACKSAW is a cross-cut 
saw with small teeth and a strip of 
steel reinforcing the back, in order 




Fig. 4 



On account of the thinness of the 
While the hacksaw is primarily a 
Figure 4 shows a hacksaw, in use. 



to insure a straight cut in doing accurate small work, 
blade this steel back is necessary to prevent bending. 

cross-cut saw, it will cut in any direction of the grain. - ,^„.^ , o^v^.vo ^ i^a,-.^oaw 
and the method of holding the small piece of stock by means^of I bench hoo'k.''''"This' bench 

hook is secured in the vise in order to hold it 
firmly and the stock is held against one of the 
cleats while the sawing is done. (On page 13 
is a working drawing of a bench hook.) 

THE TURNING SAW. The other saw 
in common use is the turning saw which may 
be used in any di- 
rection of the grain, 
and, as its name 
suggests, it is used 
where the cut is 
not straight. The 
blade being very narrow, it can be turned readily in any direction. 
EDGED TOOLS. In this class are the knife, chisels, hatch- 
ets and planes. 

The chisel is perhaps the simplest form of cutting tool. They 
are of various sizes, ranging from j^ of an inch in width to 2 or 
3 inches in width, depending upon the purpose for which they 
are intended. For ordinary work chisels of the following dimen- 
sions will answer all purposes, — >^ , }^, ^ and i inch, — although 

5 




Fig. 5 




Fig. 6 



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Fig. 7 

This is from a photograph of a jackplane. 1 indicates the toe ; 2, the 
mouth ; 3, the screw, which regulates the depth of the cut ; 4, the clamp, which 
holds the blade in place ; 5, the blade, and 6, the lever by means of which the 
blade is kept straight — that is, one side as high as the other. 



larger ones, up to 2 inches, should be kept in the general tool stock. The cutting angle of 
the tool depends upon the kind of wood to be cut. The harder the wood, the greater the 
angle ; usually, for ordinary purposes, about 30 to 35 degrees. Care should be taken in sharp- 
ening the chisel not to disturb the angle or to round it off. The chisel is either pushed by 
the hands or driven with a wooden mallet. It seems almost needless to say that all chisels 
should be kept in good cutting condition if good work is expected. Form the habit early of 
keeping all edged tools sharp. It is impossible for good work to be done with a tool that 
is not in good condition. Figures 5 and 6 show the proper position of the chisel for hori- 
zontal and vertical cuts. It is well to use the largest tool that will conveniently do 
the work. 

PLANES. A plane is simply 
a chisel set in a frame and used to 
pass over a board to remove a cer- 
tain portion of the surface. The 
depth of the cut is regulated by a 
screw at the back of the plane and 
the frame of the plane keeps the 
depth of the cut uniform. By re- 
leasing the clamp (see fig. 7), the 
blade and cap are readily removed. 
Figure 8 shows the position of the 
jackplane in use. The blade should 
be sharpened in the same manner 
as a chisel, and care should be taken 
not to allow the corners to become 
rounded. After sharpening the 
plane blade test it with a try- 
square to see if the cutting edge 
is at right angles to the blade. If 
not, one side of the cut will be 
deeper in the wood. It is poor 
policy to attempt to hurry any tool 
in doing its work by setting the cut 
too deep. The same is true of 
sawing when one attempts to hurry 
the saw by means of pressure. 

For ordinary work the plane 
most used is the jackplane, which 
is used for roughing out stock. 
(Figure 7 shows the structure of 
the jackplane.) The other planes 
are the smooth-plane, the jointer 
and the block-plane. The block- 
plane is used for very small 
work and for working across the 
grain. Figure 9 shows the block- 
plane in use. The smooth-plane is 
smaller than the jackplane and is 
used for smoothing the surface 
without reference to straightening 
it. The jointer is a long plane 
used for finishing and straightening 
the surface of the stock. 

BRACE AND BIT. Figure 
10 shows the position of the bit and 
brace in boring. It is necessary 
only to hold the tool vertical and 
turn the brace, without pressure 
on the bit. Fig. g 






Fig. 9 



Fig. 10 



JOINTS IN COMMON USE 



It is not considered worth while to teach the making of joints abstractly for the purpose of 
gaining skill in making joints. It is thought better to learn to make each joint as the use for it 
develops in the making of objects. But for the convenience of the student when use for a joint does 
arise we have given on page 8 drawings of all the more important joints in common use. They are 
known by the following names: 



1. Butt. 

2. Corner Butt. 

3. Lap Butt. 

4. Mitred Lap Butt. 

5. Gained. 

6. Plain Mitre. 

7. End Half Lap. 

8. Lap. 
g. Lap. 



10. Half Lap. 

II and 12. Mortise and Tenon. 

13. Blind Mortise and Tenon. 

14. End Mortise and Tenon. 
15 and 16. Dowel. 

17 and 18. Dovetailed Half Lap. 

19. Notched. 

20. Plain Dovetail. 

21. Half Blind Dovetail. 



NOTE. — The student should apply to his instructor for the necessary information about how 
10 lay out and cut the various joints. 



STAINING AND FINISHING 

For the purpose of this book it is not necessary to go into any lengthy discussion of stains and 
finishes. The authors feel that it will suffice to give a few of the more common ones, inasmuch as 
the instructor will be able to help the student on any particular stain or finish which he might desire. 
Perhaps the most satisfactory way for stains in general to be made is to take dry color, ground in 
oil, and mix it with boiled linseed oil to the consistency of paste. It may then be thinned with tur- 
pentine and applied with a brush. The stain should be wiped off immediately after it is applied. A 
great variety of colors may be obtained in this way, and where a particular color is to be matched 
this is the most practical method. Many of the stains already in the market are good, but they are 
likely to be rather harsh in color. If only small articles are to be stained, artists' oil colors in tubes, 
thinned with turpentine, are very satisfactory. They are expensive, however, and should not be used 
for large jobs. A very desirable finish, which may be applied over any kind of stain, is obtained 
by melting bees' wax in turpentine and applying it very hot to the wood. It should be rubbed with 
waste or an old cloth while it is hot. If too much wax is left upon the surface the finish will not 
be satisfactory. This finish might be repeated after several days if the surface seems to require it. 
This wax finish is very suitable for all indoor work. For out-door work, such as porch furniture, 
an oil finish is better. 

OIL FINISH 

Cover the surface of the wood with boiling hot linseed oil and allow to dry for about twenty- 
four hours. This operation may be repeated three or four times, until the surface of the wood is 
thoroughly saturated. The color of the wood will be somewhat darkened and the oil will act as a 
preservative for the wood. 

SANDPAPER 

In using sandpaper it should be borne in mind that it is to be used only in the direction of the 
grain. The sandpaper should be wrapped around a block (preferably with a cork or rubber face). 
Very fine sandpaper (oo) is all that is needed. 



THE RENDERING OF A MECHANICAL 
PERSPECTIVE VIEW 

The diagram on page lo shows the method in common use for making perspective drawings 
from the plan and elevation. The line marked " picture plane " is drawn horizontally and the plan 
is so placed that one corner of it touches the picture plane. The plan may be turned at any angle 
with reference to the picture plane, according to the view desired. The station point may be selected 
by the observer, and marks the point from which the view is taken. To locate any point in the per- 
spective plane from the plan, draw lines from the various points in the plan to the station point. 
When these lines intersect the picture plane they are projected downward at right angles to the 
picture plane. From the elevation the heights are projected horizontally to the line of heights, which 
is a line at right angles to the picture plane at B. The points marked V.P.L. and V.P.R. are, respec- 
tively, the vanishing point left and vanishing point right. The location of these points will vary 
with the view taken. To locate the vanishing point, draw lines from the station point parallel to the 
sides of the plan, as, in this case, parallel to B-C and A-B, extending them until they intersect the 
picture plane. The horizon line represents the level of the eye of the observer, and may be chosen 
at will. From the points where the lines parallel to A-B and B-C intersect the picture plane, project 
downward at an angle of go degrees from the picture plane until they intersect the horizon line. At 

9 



these points of intersection the horizontal lines of the object will vanish to the right and left re- 
spectively. The various heights are now taken from the elevation and projected across to the line 
of heights. From the various points thus found on the line of heights converging lines are drawn 
to the vanishing points. By the aid of the vertical lines determining the various widths which are 
brought down from the plan, and the horizontal lines determining the heights which are brought 
over from the elevation the converging lines show the proper placing of each element of the object 
in perspective. As it is hardly vdthin the scope of this book to give a fuller demonstration of per- 
spective, it is thought best to include this diagram showing how perspective drawings of the vari- 
ous objects in the book may be rendered. It is recommended that the pupil familiarize himself with 
the matter of mechanical perspective by referring to some complete work upon the subject. Libraries 
are usually equipped with several good books. A very simple, concise presentation of the entire 
subject is found in a little book by Frank Forrest Frederick. 



DRAWING BOARD 



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DRAWING BOARD AND T-SQUARE 

The drawing on the lower half of page 13 is the working drawing for a T-square, which will 
be used throughout the work in making the mechanical drawings. The workmg drawmg for the 
drawing board is shown on page 11. Begin the construction of the drawing board by laymg out 
and dressing up the stock according to the drawing. Stock should not be dressed to the exact length 
before gluing. Dress face side and both edges of each piece, being careful that they are square and 
straight Use the jointer plane on these long edges and dress the edges in pairs until they exactly 
coincide, and mark each pair to go together. Glue the edges, being sure that the entire surface 
is covered with glue. If bubbles are left in the glue, or any part of the surface is. left dry, the 
joint will probably open. Put the pieces in the clamps, protecting each edge from the clamp by a 
small block. They should remain in the clamp several hours, until the glue is thoroughly dry. 
When dry, dress this up as one piece to the required dimensions for the drawing board. The cleats 
should then be laid out, dressed up, and screwed against the back of the board, as shown in the 

drawing. . 

The T-square is very simple in construction but requires very accurate work, since the blade 
must be quite straight and must join the head at exactly a right angle. After dressing up each 
piece to dimensions, bore the holes in the blade to receive the screws but do not countersink them. 
Use blued, round-headed screws. The centre screw is started first and driven home. The blade is 
then squared with the head by means of the try-square and the other screws driven home. 



BENCH HOOK 

On the upper part of page 13 is a working drawing of a bench hook. This is a rather simple 
exercise for beginning work, and is an article that is very often needed. Lay out and dress up the 
stock according to the drawing and assemble the parts, using flat-head bright screws. 

Too much care cannot be exercised in dressing up the parts of the bench hook. In screwing 
together two pieces of wood, as in this case screwing on the cleats, it is best to bore holes through 
the cleat so the screw passes through readily, but not to bore holes in the other part. In this way 
the screw passing readily through the cleat and boring its way into the other piece of stock, draws 
the two pLrts very tightly together. Before the screws are put in, the holes in the cleats should be 
countersunk The positions of the screws are indicated on the drawing by small circles. It is not 
necessary to apply stain or other finish to such an object, although an oil finish will, to some ex- 
tent, prevent its becoming soiled. , c ' , • u 

In using the bench hook the long cleat, the one going clear across, may be secured firmly in the 
vise and the stock to be sawed placed against the shorter cleat. 

Figure 4 on page 5 shows the use of the bench hook in sawring small pieces of stock. 

The bench hook should be kept near at hand and regarded as a part of the working equipment 
of the student. 



12 



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BOOK RACK 



A working drawing of a book rack is given on page 15, and on this page are four designs for the 
decoration of the end of the book rack. Decide upon the shape of the end, and the general design of 
the object. Then lay out and dress up all stock, according to your drawing. After the various 
parts are finished to dimensions the design which you have decided upon may be outlined upon the 
ends of the book rack by means of the veining tool, and the spaces colored with oil stain or water 
color. Any suitable stain or finish may be applied to the entire book rack. (See page 9.) 



14 



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DESIGN FOR 
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WALL SHELVES 



The lower drawing on this page is a working drawing for a very useful piece of wall furni- 
ture, and offers a very interesting problem in wood construction. The drawing, as it is given, in- 
volves a good many pieces of material, and, if thought best by the one constructing it, it may be 
simplified somewhat. The vertical pieces connecting the two shelves may be replaced by one piece 
of the same width as the bracket below. The whole project may be screwed together, instead of 
mortised and tenoned. The drawing, as it is given, plans for the main part of the back to be rab- 
beted into the upright end pieces. The entire piece may be hung from the molding of the room 
by means of small chains. Holes should be bored through the upper ends of the upright pieces to 
receive the chain. 

IS 




PICTURE FRAME 

The above drawing shows a very excellent method of making frames for pictures or for mirrors. 
The ordinary frame is usually mitred at the corners, and even when the joints are well made and 
carefully glued they are likely to open. The mortise and tenon structure shown in this drawing 
not only holds better, but, in the author's opinion, has a better structural appearance than the 
mitred corner. It not only has solidity but the appearance of solidity. The end pieces may be al- 
lowed to extend as in the drawing or not, at the will of the worker. The back may be rabbeted 
to receive the picture, or thin strips of wood may be screwed against the back, as shown in the 
drawing. The dimensions are to be supplied to fit the purpose for which the frame is intended. 



A FOLDING SCREEN 

In the drawing for a folding screen, on page 21, the scale of 3/32" ^ i" has been used. If 
the dimensions are not satisfactory, rearrange them according to your needs and make a drawing 
to scale. From your drawing make a stock list and proceed to lay out, dress and finish, as in the 
other exercises. Mortise and tenon structure is to be used in the screen, but the joints have not 
been shown in the dravdng. Doweled butt joints may be used in place of the mortise and tenon. 
The large panels in the lower part of the screen may be of linen, canvas, leather or other suitable 
material, on stretchers. A stretcher is merely a wooden frame made to fit into the place, and the 
material is drawn over it from either side. The stretchers may be held in place by dowels. Any 
stain or finish in harmony with the general surroundings wi'l'be suitable. 

16 



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BOOK SHELVES 



Study the drawing of an arrangement of book shelves on this page. Decide upon the dimensions 
desired, if those given are not satisfactory. The drawing on the page is made up to the scale of i/8" 
= i". Make a stock list, giving the number of parts and their dimensions. Lay out, cut and dress 
up stock. Lay out cdl the mortise and tenon joints before beginning to cut them out. Confer with 
your teacher about the best method of procedure. When all parts are finished you are ready for 
assembling. The keyed mortise and tenon structure renders this piece of furniture capable of being 
taken apart at will. If the joints are carefully fitted it will be very firm and solid. Stain the wood 
to match other articles in the room where it is to be used and apply a wax finish. 



AN ADJUSTABLE DRAWING BOARD 

It is often desirable to have a drawing board which will adjust to various angles, especially 
where freehand drawing is to be done on a desk that has a low and flat top. In such a difficulty a 
very simple drawing board like the one given on page i8 will lessen the difficulties. It consists of 
a drawing board which is hinged to a base and held in place by a support hinged to the board, and 

17 



ADJUSTABLE DRAWING BOARD 



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which runs in a metal rachet in the base. The base is made of 
four pieces, mortise and tenon, as shown in the drawing. The 
support is of three pieces of wood and a strip of metal which 
works in the rachet. The metal facing of the rachet may be 
readily constructed from Venetian iron bent as shown in the 
detailed drawing and screwed to the base at either end. If these 
dimensions are not satisfactory, or if you have a drawing board 
which you wish to mount in this way choose dimensions to 
suit. White pine is excellent material for this purpose, and it 
may be given an oil finish, or stained, at the discretion of the 
instructor. 

PLANNING AND MAKING 
A STOOL 

Every problem in structural design calls for a study of size, 
shape and proportions dependent upon the use of the completed 
object. The stool should be strong but not clumsy. Let us 
build the frame of small pieces fastened securely at the ends by 
means of joints. The most satisfactory joint for this purpose is 
the mortise and tenon. (See page 8.) By its use we can join 
securely pieces placed at right angles with each other. The 
problem of any side of the stool resolves itself into an arrange- 
ment of vertical pieces (stiles) and horizontal pieces (rails). 
Make freehand sketches of several arrangements of different 
proportions and select the best. Make a drawing to scale from 
this sketch. Lay out and dress up all pieces to the dimensions 
given in your drawing, except length. Next lay out the mortises 
and tenons. When ready for gluing one side should be as- 
sembled and glued up as a completed whole. The opposite side 
should be treated likewise. After the glue upon these two sides 
has thoroughly set the remaining rails, forming the other two 
sides, may be inserted and the stool again put in clamps to dry. 
It is then ready for finishing. 

PLANT STAND 

On page 20 is the working drawing for a plant stand. This is 
somewhat more difficult than the stool on page 19, but somewhat 
similar in construction. Proceed in the same general way, cut- 
ting out and dressing up all parts before assembling. Assemble 
and finish as in the other exercises. 




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Fig. 12 






TABLES 

The drawings on pages 22 and 23 show tables for various purposes, the small round table on 
page 22 being the easiest to construct. As the working drawings for these various tables are very 
complete, it is deemed hardly necessary to give very definite instructions concerning the making of 
each piece. The same method of procedure should be followed as in the other projects, and the 
student should advise with his instructor before deciding upon the dimensions and design of any of 
the projects. The style of construction, the various joints needed, and the kind of stain and finish 
should all be carefully considered before beginning the actual work of making. 

A working drawing showing the structure of a drawer suitable for the tables on page 23 is 
given on the lower part of page 24. For the various joints involved see pages 7 and 8. 

19 



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PLANT 
STAND 



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SMALL ROUND TOP TABLE 



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SEWING TABLE 



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Fig. 13 



LADIES' DRESSING 
TABLE 

The drawings at the top of this page show 
two working views of the dressing table and a 
perspective sketch showing its appearance when 
completed. As in the case of all the projects given 
in this book, the dimensions need not be followed 
absolutely, but they have been thought out with 
much care and show excellent proportions. Un- 
less there is some good reason for changing them, 
it would be well for the student to follow at least 
the general proportions very carefully. 



A HALL SEAT 

The working drawing appearing at the top of page 26 shows the structure of a hall seat. This 
is rather a large project, and is suitable for a class exercise. No single part is very difficult, yet 
it takes very great care in all parts to have the entire piece satisfactory when it is assembled. If 
it is taken up as a class project each student should be very particular to have his part absolutely 
accurate. 

LIBRARY TABLE 

The working drawing of a library table appears at the lower part of page 26. The authors 
have had similar tables made completely by eighth grade pupils working upon them as class pro- 
jects. However, unless the class is fairly well advanced, and has had a good deal of preliminary 
work, it would be useless to attempt so difficult a project. It is excellent work for high school 
classes, and the table, when completed, makes a fine addition to the school library equipment. 

34 




A LADIES' WRITING DESK 



The accompanying working drawing of a ladies' writing desk is complete enough to work from 
in constructing the desk. This is rather a difficult problem in cabinet making and should not be at- 
tempted until a good deal of preliminary work has been done. Study the various parts carefully, 
noting the dimensions, and decide upon the means of fastening together the various parts. For the 
most part this has not been shown in the drawing, and was purposely omitted, to give the student 
an opportunity to decide upon the best means of construction. 

The student should advise with his instructor concerning the various structural problems in- 
volved, and the kinds of joints, methods of cutting them, methods of staining and finishing should 
all be thoroughly discussed before the work of cutting out the stock is begun. The dimensions 
need not be those given on the drawing, but may be suited to the personal needs of the student. 
This writing desk may be simplified considerably if the student has not done sufficient preliminary 
work. 

The paneling on the lid may be reduced to a single panel. The student should study the 
drawing carefully, and it would be well for him to go, with note-book in hand, to a furniture 
store and note the various kinds of writing desks to see if there are changes which he can profit- 
ably make in the model. After all these things have been decided upon, and the project has been 
approved by the instructor, a careful drawing should be made, a stock list prepared, and the stu- 
dent is then ready to begin the actual work of making the desk. 

25 



UAI I CTAT" THE 6EAT IS HINGED AND ACTS AS 

nAL.l_ OLM I A LID FOR BOX UNDER THE SEAT- 6' X46" 




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26 



METAL WORK 

Processes 



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I. SAWING 

The metal saw and the method of using it are pictured 
in Fig. 14. A small piece of wood with a notch in it is 
securely fastened to the bench and the metal held tightly 
against this board. If the metal is allowed to move the 
saw is very likely to be broken. The saw should work 
very freely and should not be hurried. Care should be 
taken to see that the cut is vertical through the metal. 
Follow the outline that has been marked as nearly as pos- 
sible, keeping just outside of it. After the piece has been 
sawed out it is ready for finishing. 

II. FILING 

Small files, known as needle files, are most useful in 
finishing small parts of metal work. A larger file may 
be used to straighten up the outer edges, but very fine 
files should be used for finishing. The corners and edges 
of the metal should be slightly rounded. After the piece 
is filed as nearly as possible to the proper size and shape 
a piece of emery cloth should be used to remove all rough- 
ness or irregularity in the surface. 



III. PIERCING 

Where parts of metal are to be cut out it will be 
necessary to first drill holes through each of the parts to 
be removed. (See Fig. 15.) Detach one edge of the saw 
blade from the frame and insert it in the hole in the metal. 
Attach it again to the saw frame and proceed to saw out 
the part required. Finish as before. 



IV. ANNEALING 

It will be found that after working for a while with Fig_ 15 

copper or brass the metal becomes quite hard, and is 

difficult to work. It should then be annealed, or softened, which is done by heating it to a cherry 
red over a gas plate, or other flame, and immersing it in water. As often as the metal becomes 
hardened it should be annealed to facilitate the work. In finishing a piece of work, however, care 
should be taken to leave it as hard as possible. 




V. SOLDERING 

When it is desired to solder together two pieces of metal, they should first be cleaned care- 
fully in what is commonly known as pickle (a solution of one part sulphuric acid and twenty parts 
water). This serves to clean the surface. Both parts to be soldered should be carefully cleaned, 

27 



placed together, and bound solidly with thin binding wire. The flux used for copper, brass or 
silver is borax. Rub a piece of borax in a little water in a saucer until enough is precipitated to 
color the water slightly. Cut up silver solder in small parts, about 1/16 of an inch square, and 
drop them into the flux. Cover the parts to be soldered with this flux and using a small brush 
pick up the particles of solder and lay them around the joint. By means of the blow pipe apply 

a blue flame to the metal, very slowly at first to 
prevent the solder from flying. (See Fig. 16.) 
Continue the flame until the metals fuse. Remove 
the binding wire and drop the metal in water to 
cool. It may then be finished by the use of needle 
files, emery cloth, and a small stone known as the 
tam o' shanter hone, which will be found very use- 
ful in working into the various parts. Where more 
than one job of soldering is required on the same 
article, the first one should be entirely covered with 
a paste formed of yellow ochre and water before 
beginning the second heat; otherwise it may be- 
come unsoldered. 

VI. PUNCTURING 

A very simple method of treating backgrounds 
in thin metal work is known as puncturing. The 
design is laid out carefully in pencil and the back- 
ground is punctured by a small tool like an awl, 
struck with a light hammer. This is a simple and 

fairly satisfactory way of treating backgrounds in such objects as lamp shades, where it is desired 

that the light should shine through. 




Fig. 16 



VII. REPOUSSE 

The process of repousse is that of raising in relief a certain part of the design. The design is 
drawn upon the reverse side of the metal. A bath of pitch and tallow is then warmed slightly and 
the metal pressed into the pitch, with the drawing up. The parts intended to be in relief in the 
finished article are then hammered down into the pitch. This may be done by tools of any shape 
that will accomplish the purpose. Students can make the necessary tools of large wire nails, filing 
them to the desired shape. After the process is carried as far as possible in this manner the pitch is 
again warmed until the metal is released. It can be cleaned readily with turpentine or by heating. 
It should then be replaced, face side up, and gone over with small tools, rectifying all the slight 
errors and completing the work generally. 

VIII. ETCHING 

Before etching a design upon metal, the metal should be cleaned carefully with pumice stone 
and water, or with alcohol, or pickle, and the design carefully drawn upon the metal. The parts 
that are not to be etched should be covered with a thick coating of asphaltum, which will resist 
the acid. It should then be allowed to dry for several hours. If put into the acid too soon the 
asphaltum may be removed and the work ruined. After the asphaltum is thoroughly dry and 
every part protected, immerse in the following solution and allow to remain until etched to a suffi- 
cient depth: 

3 parts water, i part nitric acid, i part sulphuric acid. 
The article may then be removed from the acid and washed in water to stop the action of the acid. 
If care has been given to the putting on of the asphaltum and allowing it to dry, the design should 
be clearly cut. The asphaltum may then be removed with turpentine. 

28 



IX. ENAMELING 

The process of enameling as practiced by jewelers and silver-smiths generally is not a prac- 
tical public school problem, but for all the work given in this book where enameling is desired 
the design may be etched as described above, and the parts which have been etched may be filled 
with bath-tub enamel which has been previously tinted with artists' oil colors to any desired 
hue. It should be allowed to dry for several hours and the surface pumiced smooth and level with 
the surface of the metal. The entire object may then be lacquered if desired. 



X. OXIDIZING AND COLORING 

A very interesting way of treating metal is to apply to it one of the following solutions, w^hich 
will color the metal more or less permanently. The high lights may be rubbed off after the solu- 
tion is dry and the lower parts and depressions may be left. The following solutions are suitable 
for coloring brass or copper: 

SOLUTIONS FOR COPPER, BRASS, AND SILVER 

To oxidize silver, paint it with a solution of one part of potassium sulphide to four parts of 
water. Let dry and rub off high lights. 

For silver, copper or brass, a solution of 1/4 oz. chloride of antimony in 4 oz. of chloride of 
iron will be found very satisfactory. 

Another one for the same metals is 1/2 lb. oxide of iron to which is added one oz. of platinum. 

To color copper green: i oz. sal ammoniac, 3 oz. cream tartar, 6 oz. common salt, 12 oz. hot 
water, 2 oz. copper nitrate. Sprinkle the solution over the article. Then wash in cold water and 
dry over a Bunsen burner. 

Following are two tables showing liquids for coloring brass or copper by simple immersion. 
(From " The Metal Workers' Handy Book," by William T. Brantt. Used by permission of the 
publishers, Henry Carey Baird & Co.) 

FOR BRASS 



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XI. RAISING 

The process of raising forms in thin metal is 
very interesting and not very difficult, unless carried 
to extremes. This process comprises all the forms, 
from very shallow trays to deep bowls, and even 
teapots and pitchers. The latter, however, are en- 
tirely too difficult for elementary work, and the stu- 
dent should content himself with making such objects 
as appear on pages 35 and 37 of this book. The base 
of the candlestick No. 7, on page 35, is simply a 
shallow bowl. In making such a bowl, the first step 
is to make a profile drawing of the object just the 
size you wish it to be when completed. A piece of 
copper about 20 gauge should be used. By means 
of a string, measure the distance on the drawing 
from the centre of the base to the top edge. This 
distance represents the radius of the circle to be 
drawn upon the copper. Another circle should be 
drawn from the same centre, showing the size of the 
base of the bowl. Figure 19 shows the method of raising the form by means of metal anvils held in 
place by the iron bench vise. Various anvils will be necessary, according to the shape of the object 
under construction, and several hammers can be used advantageously. A little experience in this 
work will suggest precisely the tool for any given purpose. 

As often as the metal becomes hardened it should be annealed by heating it until it is red hot 
and plunging it into cold water. It is then in condition to work upon again. During the process 
of raising, the edges will become very irregular and will need to be trimmed. Mark the height all 
the way around the object, and trim off with a small pair of shears, finishing the edge vnth a file 
and emery cloth, so that it will be perfectly smooth. Consult your instructor often in all of these 
processes, and follow his advice carefully. It will save you many disappointments in beginning 
metal work, and his experience will enable you to accomplish much more than if you attempt to be 
too original. 




Fig. 19 



A MATCH SAFE 



The lower drawing on page 33 is a working drawing for a match safe, and the upper drawing 
shows a perspective view and two schemes for decorating the sides. The dimensions are to be sup- 
plied by the pupil, according to the size of the match box chosen." Study the drawings carefully 
and note that a different base has been used in the perspective view from that in the working draw- 
ing. Make a drawing of a match safe to suit your purpose and work it out in thin copper or brass, 
after submitting your design to the instructor. 






BLOTTER CORNERS 

Metal corners for a desk blotter offer a very interesting problem and are not very difficult. 
The designs given on this page may be etched or repoussed on copper, brass, or silver, of about 
20 gauge. A pattern for blotter corners is shown in Book Five, page 26, of this series. The stu- 
dent will find many designs in the other books of the series which will help very materially in his 
work in wood and metal. Review the various processes concerned, namely, sawing, filing, etch- 
ing and repousseing. Be very careful to remove all roughness from the edges, so the hand will 
not be cut in passing over the blotter corners. 

DESIGNING AND MAKING LETTER OPENERS 

The designs on page 32 and other similar ones may be suitably worked out in copper or 
brass. The decorations may be etched and enameled, or simply etched. Decide upon the design 
you wish to use and mark out the shape upon the metal. It should then be sawed out, being care- 
ful at all times not to cut inside the line. Smooth up the piece with a file, working the edges down 
till they are smooth, but not too much rounded. The blade should be made thinner at the edges 
than in the middle, and thin toward the points The edge should not be made sharp. After 
the piece is completed in this manner the design for etching may be traced upon the copper. 
Follow the general directions for etching given on page 28. As the enamel used on metal work 
requires great heat, it is not a practical thing for school use. However, a very desirable substitute 
may be had in the form of bath-tub enamel, which comes in cans. It is white, but may be tinted 
with any color by using artists' oil colors. The part to be covered with enamel is filled and al- 
lowed to dry. The enamel is then worked down to a smooth surface by means of pumice stone. 
Lacquer suitable for copper or brass can then be put over the surface of both metal and enamel. 
This will be found to be very durable, and is capable of very beautiful results. 

31 



DESIGNS FOR LETTER 0PENER5 






32 




Fig. 20 




Fig. 21 



CANDLESTICK AND SHADES 



On page 35 are several designs for candlesticks and shades. These shades may be used either 
for candles, lamps, gas or electric lights. 

Fig. I shows the pattern for the finished shade shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 2 shows the pattern of 
the completed one in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 is a support which may be put over a gas jet or electric light 
bulb, or lamp, to hold the shade in place. The top of this support must be made of the proper 
size to fit the top of the shade. Diagram i, page 34, shows the method of laying out pattern i. 
on page 35. It may seem rather difficult, but it is about the only safe way to lay out the pattern 
for any size or shape. The size of the two circles in the diagram must be determined by the size 
of the lamp or other fixture to be fitted. Draw these two circles concentric, as shown, and draw 
diameter 1-2. 

33 -•'... 



From I, 3, 4 and D project downward to 5, 7, 8 and 6. Draw 5-6 and 7-8. Draw 5-7 and 6-8, 
extending them until they intersect at 9. Set off 15 degrees from the diameter at c-d, which is 1/24 
of the circumference. With 9-5 as radius, describe 
a circle, and with the same centre, and a radius 
equal to 9-7, describe another circle. From any 
point on the greater circimiference set off C-D 25 
times. 24 of these divisions represent the circum- 
ference of the circle after the shade is completed. 
(See Fig. i. Page 35.) The remaining division is 
space left for riveting. 

Diagram 2 shows the method of laying out 
pattern 2. Draw one side 1-2-3-4, the desired size 

and shape. Extend the 
lines 3-1 and 2-4 until 
they intersect at 5. 
With 5 as centre and 
5-3 as radius draw a 
circle. With the same 
centre and 5-1 as radius 
draw another circle. 
Set off the distance 3-4 
upon the circumference 

of the larger circle in points 6, 7 and 8. Set off the distance 1-2 on the 
smaller circle in points 9, 10 and 11. Draw the lines 8-9, 9-1, 3-1, 8-3, 
etc., completing the figure. Allow a small margin on one of the sides 
as in Fig. 2, for riveting. 

The decorations on these shades may be made by puncturing, pierc- 
ing, or etching. Review these processes on pages 27 and 28. For making 
the candlestick, in addition to the other processes, you will need to review 
soldering, riveting and raising. The base of the candlestick, Fig. 7, is 
raised similar to a shallow bowl from the flat piece of metal shown in 
Diagram 1 pjg_ ^^ -pj^^ handle is shown in Fig. ii. The rim around the top of 

the candlestick, Fig. 6, is raised slightly like a very shallow bowl, and the centre cut out the size 
of the candle. It is then soldered to the top. The base of the candlestick, Fig. 8, is made from a 
square piece and raised like the tray on page 37. The receiver for the candle may be made of 
tubing, or may be made of bending a piece of metal the required shape and soldering or riveting it 
up the side. The receiver for the candle may then be soldered to the base, and the handle either 
soldered or riveted to both. 





Diagram 2 



SIMPLE TRAYS AND BOWLS 



Figures i, 2 and 3 on page 37 show the very simple method of making shallow trays of any 
shape. Treat the centre of the tray as though it were a small bowl and disregard for the time 
being the remaining surface which is to receive the decorative border. Mark out very carefully 
the shape of this depression, and review the process of raising on page 30. Decide upon the decora- 
tion and apply it to the surrounding surface, as shown in Figures i, 2 and 3. This decoration 
may then be etched or done in repousse. Study the processes involved before attempting the work. 
Figures 9 and 10 show two modifications of a border which may be adapted to any of these metal 
problems. Figures 4 and 5 are simple forms of bowls, and Fig. 6 is a similar form vnth the addition 
of a lid. This lid is made from a flat piece slightly raised in the centre, with a narrow circular 
band soldered to the bottom to hold it in place. The ink pot, Fig. 8, is made first as a bowl, like 
Fig. 5. It is then inverted and soldered to a bottom piece, and the top cut out, after which a rim 
may be put around the top and a cover made, as for Fig. 6. Fig. 7 shows a casserole and cover. 

34 




35 



Earthenware casseroles can be bought at slight expense and make very desirable cooking uten- 
sils. The cover is a very interesting metal problem. It is made like a very shallow bowl, the 
edge being turned over to fit the shape of the casserole. A handle is then cut out and riveted on, 
and a suitable decoration may be applied, or it may be left plain. The inside of the lid should be 
plated with silver. 

A HANGING LANTERN OF BRASS OR 

COPPER 

Page 38 shows an interesting way for students to arrange their drawings before carrying them 
out in material. At the right is a perspective view of the lantern as it will appear in use. This 
kind of lantern is very satisfactory where electric lights are used, as an electric bulb may be sus- 
pended inside the lantern and the wire carried through the top and up along the chain. Colored 
glass may be inserted for the sides, making a very interesting spot of color in the room. At the 
bottom of the page is a pattern for the four sides. It will be noticed that on the pattern the small 
decorative scheme at the top has not been repeated on the four sides, as would be necessary in 
the completed lantern. Another design for this same part is shown toward the top of the page. 
In the middle of the page are given the two patterns necessary for the construction of the top. 
All patterns should be cut out of the metal on the solid lines and bent on the dolteJ lines to fit into 
shape. The two parts of the top should be riveted together. The four sides should be folded 
together and riveted. The small flanges left at the top of the pattern are for riveting the sides 
to the top. The projections at the bottom are for bending inward to hold the glass after it is in- 
serted. An interesting effect of color may be produced upon the copper by painting it over with 
a solution of one part perchloride of iron and two parts of water, which, after it is dry, may be 
partially rubbed off, thus producing a mottled green color which gives the appearance of age. The 
glass inside should extend high enough to cover the entire design. The small ventilators in the top 
should be cut on the line of the pattern and slightly raised with the peen of a hammer. 

MAKING WATCH FOBS 

Some very easily made watch fobs are illustrated on page 39. The drawings are full size. 
The material needed is copper, brass or silver, and a piece of thin leather, which may be obtained 
in a variety of colors. The decorations may be pierced, or etched and colored, or enameled. For 
description of each of these processes see pages 27 and 28. As in all the other work in materials, the 
first step is to decide upon a design and make a drawing. Lay out the material for each part, cut it 
out, and dress it up to the exact size and shape. Before doing the actual work of making the fob 
it will be necessary to understand the processes (sawing, filing, drilling, etching, soldering and 
enameling) which are given on pages 27 and 28. Near the centre of page 39 is a design for the 
pendant of the fob, showing three views. This provides for a button on the back of the metal part, 
so that it may be buttoned through the leather, instead of suspended from a slot like some of the 
others. Where students have not had sufficient practice or opportunity to make chains, the plan 
given at the lower right-hand side of the page will be found very satisfactory. 

MAKING BROOCHES AND BELT PINS 

The material needed for making these objects is copper, brass or silver. It is hardly worth 
while to make the backs, as they can be bought so cheaply. Review the processes of sawing, filing, 
soldering, etching and enameling. The enameling must be done last, as the heat of soldering would 
melt the enamel. 

36 




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